Since its independence in 1956, Morocco has had six constitutions promulgated respectively in 1962, 1970, 1972, 1992, 1996 and 2011. In addition to these six different constitutional texts, Morocco revised three of its constitutional texts namely those of 1972, 1992 and 1996.
However, the new constitution of 2011 is considered as a suitable tool initiating the Moroccan alternative toward democracy.
And for good reasons, the fundamental features of this new text trace the contours:
- Consistency and modernity that rely as much on the form (180 items instead of 108 of the old text, well arranged in 14 titles) than on the level of the modern formulation of the preamble, integrated part of the constitutional text.
- Inclusive, transparent and democratic methodology (constitution made by the Moroccans for all Moroccan).
- Consecration of the foundations of the Moroccan plural identity.
- Linguistic pact rebased on the assumed pluralism.
- True citizen chart of rights and freedoms rooted on the universal standards of human rights.
- Strengthening the notion of gender equality by the consecration of parity.
- Primacy of the national sovereignty and supremacy of the constitution.
- Separation of power depending on a constitutional monarchy regime, democratic, parliamentary and social framework.
- The judicial authority enjoys the status of independent authority, which is responsible for protecting the rights and ensure law respect.
- Constitutionalizing a participative and citizen democracy.
- Constitutionalizing the territorial democracy (advanced regionalization).
- Constitutionalizing the fundamental principals in terms of good governance, ethical standards of the public life and the rule of economic law.